Moral Problems due to Metaphysical Confusion

The Creation of Man by Michelangelo Sistine Chapel

“Christian theology makes it clear that what it means to be good is part of a larger account of the kinds of beings we are and the kind of reality we inhabit. When Paul was in Athens at Mars Hill, one of his first public claims in that pluralistic setting was an assertion that God was the maker of the world and everything in it. That is not just a “religious” claim; it is a claim about human nature that has consequences for all social and cultural life. It’s not just about morality but about metaphysics, about the nature of things. Modern culture’s moral confusion is a function of its metaphysical mistakes, so Christian championing of the common good thus requires more than moralism.” [From Ken Myers’ newsletter, Spring, 2016.]

A lot of this applies to a superfical Christian ethic which is simply good-doing-ism and winning souls to Christ.

But there’s more here.

Connect this to Augustine’s observation that the good in this universe – all good anywhere – is based in the being of God, its Creator. Evil, and its various manifestations, is like a parasite. It cannot create, it can only use what is created. And evil, as it extends itself away from the Source of all being, thus becomes less and less substantive – it fades away into nothing. It becomes true vanity, true emptiness. Read The City of God, Book 12.

Thus the Christian, in seeking reconciliation and the full development of the renewed image of God in the heart, existentially re-roots his being in God, the Source of being, and becomes increasingly more of what he was made to be: a human, a good creature in God’s image. He “partakes of the divine nature” (2 Peter 1:4) as his mind is renewed and he puts on (i.e. lives consistent with) the newly-created divine nature (Ephesians 4:23-24).

CS Lewis seeks to illustrate this principle in his book The Great Divorce. The closer one is to heaven and God, the more solid one becomes, the more real one becomes, the more “good” one becomes.

We must then ask why we, as sons of God, would be fascinated by that which ultimately becomes nothing. How can a good life be built upon vanity?

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What is the rite of Confirmation in the Anglican Communion?

I have put this together for my parishoners today – thought I’d post it here. Unedited. ūüôā

What is the rite of Confirmation?

Confirmation is the last step of Christian initiation into the Holy Catholic Church.(1) Hippolytus (d. AD 235) explains that, in apostolic times, confirmation was immediately administered after baptism, along with anointing with oil (the chrism). See Hebrews 6:2: “laying on of hands.” Confirmation was understood to be the same kind of thing that we find in The Acts of the Apostles, when the apostles would lay hands on believers in order to receive the Holy Spirit. So far so good. We know that, theologically, a person is assumed to be regenerate by the Holy Spirit with baptism (and, of course, thus indwelt), but we do see occasional instances in Acts when there is a differentiation between the regeneration signed and sealed by baptism and the “giving” of the Holy Spirit, with the laying on of the hands of the apostles. It doesn’t always happen like that, but there is a pattern evident. Because of this pattern, the Church practiced confirmation along with baptism. They were two parts of the same rite.

Problems arise when a period of time is allowed to separate baptism and confirmation. In what sense is the Spirit given or not given in this initiatory process?

A separation of baptism and confirmation occurred in the Western Church when it was required that only a bishop could administer confirmation. Since bishops would be limited in their ability to get about, a separation would naturally take place. It was understood that all a person really needed in order to be a Christian was to be baptized. That was the only necessary condition laid down by our Lord (Matthew 28:19). Confirmation, then, had to be something extra to regeneration, and was understood as such. Any subsequent giving of the Holy Spirit to a believer must be for the purpose of strengthening the new life via regeneration for discipleship and service.

There is another issue here: full communing membership. In the Western Church, Paul’s warning in I Corinthians 11:27-32 is taken to mean that a person should not be allowed to partake of the Lord’s Supper unless they are of an age of understanding and responsibility. In apostolic times, first communion was taken immediately after confirmation. Logically, if confirmation then is prerequisite and even the occasion of first communion in the historic church, then it makes sense that confirmation should not be given a person until they are old enough to take communion. As the historic church increasingly changed from members coming primarily from adult conversions to members being born into the church, confirmation would be separated from baptism: there were so many infants that were being baptized, and they were too young to finish full initiation. Of course, there would be no separation for an adult convert.

There is also a strong tradition in the Church of preparation for initiation, and thus we have in our Prayer Book the requirement of catechesis before confirmation – which thus also assumes confirmation being later in a person’s life, if baptized as an infant. They have to be old enough to be catechized.

We actually have two “tracks” here, have we not? Those born into the covenant family are baptized as infants as per the Abrahamic covenant. If born in the Western Church, that person then has to grow up until they are able to be catechized, confirmed, and take first communion. For adult converts, or adults who are coming into a Church that requires confirmation for communion, there is no reason for delaying anything.

In the current ACNA Bishop’s Visitation Customary, confirmation is first considered the equivalent of a public profession of faith, required for membership. This seems to be a reference to the practice at confirmation of affirming one’s baptismal vows. Next is a statement of the traditional idea that there is more going on than mere profession of faith. There is also a strengthening of the Holy Spirit for life and service. The statement also recognizes that the subject of confirmation would already be a born again and baptized believer. These statements together summarize the culmination of the understanding of confirmation through history, from a Western and Protestant view.

If you will read through the Book of Common Prayer (1662 or 1928), from “Baptism” through “Confirmation,” you see the whole tradition on display, with the Reformation strengthening the practice of catechizing.

(1) Anglican’s do not consider confirmation to be admission just into the Anglican Communion, but to the Catholic Church as a whole. That is why Anglican’s can accept confirmations from other communions for reception of members.

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Love as Action – Don’t fret over your feelings

C. S. Lewis in Mere Christianity says of … ¬†divine love in the heart of the believer: “But love, in the Christian sense, does not mean an emotion. It is a state not of the feelings but of the will; that state of the will which we have naturally about ourselves, and must learn to have about other people” (129). [He refers, of course, to the command to love your neighbour as you love yourself.]

Think of the relationship of feelings to love this way. Consider a pipe or faucet of water. If you run water through that pipe, you know that – depending on the kind of water running through it – mineral deposits will gradually develop along the walls of the pipe and build up over time. Well, think of the water as love in its purity of action, and the deposits as the feelings that can accrue and grow, depending on the circumstance. When the water first starts to flow, the pipe has no deposits. But if you keep the water flowing, eventually you’ll start having deposits. So it is that, with God’s love, we may have no feelings for the person – the pipe may be quite clean – but the point of having the pipe is for the water, the acts of love, not the deposits. So we act, like God acts, and we give to the other person, and, in time, the feelings – the deposits – will start to grow. Many of us have had that experience.

Of course, there are those occasions when, not only may we not have loving feelings for the person, but they may actually be hurting us in some way. The result is that, though we keep giving – though the water keeps flowing – we have to put forth so much effort to just keep the peace, that there’s no energy left for the feelings to grow. Loving that person may never seem other than a kind of chore. But that’s fine. To keep up the action in the face of discouraging circumstances is a great victory of God’s grace. After all, the people around Jesus when he died on the cross, were not all being very appreciative, were they. But he still loved them and prayed for them. If our feelings are not what we think they ought to be, forget about them. Just keep the love flowing.

And, actually, we get to that kind of situation in the latter part of our passage, do we not? For Paul here [in Romans 12] talks about how to keep up our love for people when they turn out to be our persecutors.
14 Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse them.
17 Repay no one evil for evil, but give thought to do what is honorable in the sight of all.
18 If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all.
19 Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave it to the wrath of God, for it is written, ‚ÄúVengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord.‚ÄĚ

Beloved, when it comes to people who are our enemies, people who are hurting us, whether it be our persecutors or whoever else they may be – a fellow student, or a co-worker, or a family member, if we take up that offense, or that hurt and decide we are going to hurt them back, whether by an action or a word, or by foolishly thinking that staying mad and bitter is somehow going to affect them in some way, what are we doing? We are turning off the water, aren’t we. The decision to be bitter, the decision to resent, is a decision to not love, to not act in a loving manner toward this person.

Of course, we feel like saying, “How can I love? Look at what they did!” Well, I may not see what they did, but God does. And God, though he hates the sinful thing this person has done, nevertheless still loves the sinner. Just like he loves you, in spite of the way you have hurt people in the past yourself. But God is also just, and when he looks at what this person has done to you, He cares about it. He cares about the injustice. And, if you will let him; if you will trust him to do the right thing, he will be sure that that person gets what is coming to them, either by way of making it right through the redemption of His Son, or otherwise.

But our duty toward that person remains plain, for we are to be the children of God, who show the unique love of God in this dark world by the words we say and the things we do. Our prayer for our enemies is the same as the prayer of our Saviour for his enemies, “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do,” and we may have to pray that prayer every day. But we pray it. And when we pray it, we may add, based on Romans 12, “and Father, if they do not repent, thank you that you will make all this right in your own way in your own time.” You see, grudges destroy your soul, and your heavenly Father doesn’t want that to happen. He wants you to be a whole, loving person. So, he will take care of the wrongs that happen to you, so you are free from them and their bitterness. Isn’t that kind of him?

Dear friends, God’s love is unique and it outstrips our love every time. That is why we have to have help understanding it, if we are gong to love the same way. And that’s why we have passages like Romans 12, where we have these little word pictures, showing on a case-by-case basis, what this love looks like in action, because that’s what matters; the action is what matters. Not the theory. Not the feeling. But the words and the deeds. And that is what the Lord is going to give you the grace to do. We not only need help understanding what that love looks like, we need help doing it as well. And He is that help in us. He dwells in your heart, by His Holy Spirit, and he not only loves you, and wants you to know that love, but he loves that person beside you that can be hard to love. All the power of God Himself is with you to help you to show that person the love that God has for them. Beloved, we are all in this together as the children of God. Let us have faith and trust our God to keep our hearts as we, like him, give them to others. It’s risky, but it is the way to glory.

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Odds and Ends about Esteeming the Traditional Anglican liturgy

C. S. Lewis appreciated the Anglican Prayer Book liturgy, but did not insist that changes could not be made to it.  Change was alright if truly warranted theologically and done slowly and incrementally.  His main concern was not being distracted by clerical experimentation.  Just because the clergyman has an itch to change things up does not justify his doing so.

There needs to be a good, thought out and agreed upon reason for making changes to the Prayer Book liturgy. ¬†The form of the things we have done for so long have meaning of their own – creative, beautiful meaning. ¬†And that meaning can touch peoples’ hearts and draw them to the Lord.

Consider¬†C. E. M. Joad, British philosopher and BBC broadcasting personality: “I formed the habit of intermittently attending the services of village churches long before I came to believe in the truth of what they taught. I would, I used to tell myself, go out of curiosity because I wanted to learn what still went on in them. Or – and this, perhaps, was a little nearer the truth – I was attracted by the beauty of the setting and by the beauty of the liturgy. And both of these did, indeed, have their way with me, calming my spirit and preparing me, albeit unconsciously, for a change of heart, until at last they prevailed and I became the diffident and halting Christian that I now am. I am grateful, more grateful than I can say, to the Church of England….”

I love this statement by the famous Evangelical Anglican minister, The Rev. Charles Simeon in the 19th century: “As for the Liturgy, no commendation can be too great for it…. If a whole assembly were addressing God in the spirit of the Liturgy, as well as in the words, there would be nothing to compare with such a spectacle on the face of the earth; it would approximate more to heaven than anything of the kind that was ever seen in the world. ”

And that’s what we should be after: entering into the heaven of God’s presence – not just enjoying a good time of fellowship with bits of worship tossed in. ¬†“Community” is a big buzz word these days. ¬†Our ideal should be to lead people into the “community” of “the communion of the saints,” which is universal in God’s presence. ¬†Get people to join in with that community and their local, social experience with the Church will be social enough and full of deep meaning.

Related: Lewis would go to church, put up with the sermon and the music, then go to the communion rail with wonder. ¬†After that, he’d leave asap and walk off thinking about his next book or whatever. ¬†He sought that communion of the saints before the Table – and had his “community” with his friends in the pub and the folks at home. ¬†It’s interesting to compare that with the esteem we have for him as a model Christian and also some of our sentimental ideas about liturgy. ¬†Just saying.

P.S.: talk about Evangelical Anglicans! ¬†The Rev. John Wesley on the Anglican Liturgy: “I believe there is no Liturgy in the world, either in ancient or modern language, which breathes more of a solid, scriptural, rational piety than the Common Prayer of the Church of England. ” ¬†There you go. ¬†Of course there weren’t Anglo-Catholics in his day, but someone like Wesley saying that still demonstrates that you don’t have to be one to appreciate the traditional liturgy.

OK. Enough for now.

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The book is done

The book is done and is now available on Amazon.com and Kindle (though separately – you’ll have to search for the Kindle).

See  oldnarniabooks.com for links to both.  UPDATE: 5 July:

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The Forty-Two Articles of 1553 – A Selection

I am trying to get back to finishing up my book of prayers on the Thirty-Nine Articles.  I have thought it would be a good thing to read for Lent, but 39 falls one day short.  The idea came to me that I could add a 40th day by using one of the Articles that was previously published, but not included in the Thirty-Nine.

Well, easier said than done! ¬†It took me forever to find a copy of the text of the Forty-Two Articles of 1553. ¬†I finally found a .pdf of the thing. ¬†So I typed out the articles that did not make it into the Thirty-Nine. ¬†Now I’ve got to decide which one I will use.

I thought that I’d go ahead and post here the articles I found, in case you are interested.

10 Of grace

The grace of Christ or the holie Ghost by him geven dothe take awaie the stonie harte, and geveth an harte of fleshe.  And although those that have no will to good thinges, he maketh them to will, and those that would evill thinges, he maketh them not to wille the same: Yet nevertheless he enforceth not the wil.  And therfore no man when he sinneth can excuse himself, as not worthie to be blamed or condemned, by alleging that he sinned unwillinglie, or by compulsion.

16 Blasphemie against the holie Ghoste.

Blasphemie against the holie Ghost is, when a man of malice and stubburnesse of minde, doeth raile upon the trueth of Goddes word manifestlie perceived, and being enemie therunto persecuted the same.  And because soche be guilty of Goddes curse, thei entagle themselves with a moste grievous and hainous crime, wherupon this kinde of sinne is called and affirmed of the Lorde, unpardonable.

19 All men are bounde to kepe the moral commaundementes of the Lawe.

The Lawe which was geven of God by Moses, although it binde not Christian menne, as concerning the cremonies and rites of the same: Neither is it required that the civile preceptes and ordres of it shoulde of necessitie bee received in any commune weale: Yet no manne (bee he never so perfeicte a Christian) is exempte and lose from the obedience of those commaundementes, whiche are called moral: wherfore thei are not to be harkened unto, who affirme that holie Scripture is geven onlie to the weake, and do boaste theimselves continually of the spirit, of whom (thei saie) thei have learned soche thinges as thei teache, although the same be most evidently repugnaunt to the holie Scripture.

39 The resurrection of the dead is not yeat brought to passe.

The resurrection of the dead is not as yet brought to passe, as though it only belonged to the soulle, whiche by the grace of Christe is raised from the death of sinne, but it is to be loked for at the laste daie; for then (as Scriputre doeth moste manifestlie testifie) to all that bee dead their awne bodies, fleshe and bone shal be restored, that the whole man maie (according to his workes) have other rewarde or punishment, as he hath lived vertuousllie, or wickedlie.

40 The soulles of them that departe this life doe neither die with the bodies, nor slepe idlie.

Thei which saie that the soulles of suche as departe hens doe sleepe, being without al sence, fealing, or perceiving, until the daie of judgement, or affirme that the soulles die with the bodies, and at the laste daie shal be raised up with the same, doe utterlie dissent from the right beliefe declared to us in holie Scripture.

41 Heretickes called Millenarii.

Thei that goe aboute to renewe the fable of Heretickes called Millenarii, be repugnant to holie Scripture, and caste themselves headlong into a Juishe dotage.

42 All men shall not bee saved at the length.

Thei also are worthie of condemnacion who indevoure at this time to restore the daungerouse opinion; that al menne, be thei never so ungodlie, shall at length bee saved, when thei have suffered paines for their sinnes a certaine time appoincted by Goddes justice.

God save the King. ¬†ūüôā

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Making Our Doubts Worse

Doubting Thomas by Albrecht Durer

Today is the first Sunday after Easter Sunday, and if, instead of sitting here in this building today, we had been among those first disciples on the first Sunday following the resurrection, we would have had Thomas, the twin, with us, of whom we read earlier in the Gospel. And, he would not have been a happy customer, as we say in our day. We would have been excited about the resurrection of Jesus, while he was not. But that would shortly change. Jesus would have appeared in our midst and dealt with Thomas’ doubts and we would have heard Thomas’ famous confession of faith: “My Lord and my God!”

But Thomas is not known today as “Confessing Thomas,” is he. No. He’s known as “Doubting Thomas” because of how he had given into his doubts about the resurrection. Why did Thomas doubt so much? Many have attributed his doubts to his temperament. In the few places in the Gospels where we read of something Thomas has said, he seems to have had a serious mind about things; one of those personalities that tends to see the gloomy side of life. Well, his temperament may indeed have had something to do with his doubts, but we can all have our doubts at times, can’t we; whatever our constitution….

And because there are enough things to trouble us and tempt us to have doubts about our faith in this world, we certainly do not need to be doing the kinds of things that Thomas did which made his doubts worse. We find three things that Thomas did – or didn’t do – that aggravated his doubts:
1) he did not assemble with the disciples on the first occasion when Jesus appeared to them;
2) he would not believe their testimony about their experience of the resurrection, and
3) he stubbornly presumed upon the Lord’s kindness.
Let’s consider these things for a moment.

First of all, if he had been with the disciples on the day of the resurrection, that would have settled things once and for all and he would never have been called Doubting Thomas. He would have seen Jesus the same time everyone else saw him.

Now, we have no idea why he was not with the disciples, though, if we want to refer again to an apparent gloominess of mind, he may have been too depressed to meet with them. But that would have been the very problem, wouldn’t it. How many people will not come to church and assemble with God’s people in worship because they are depressed or don’t feel like going, when that is the very thing they need to do to feel better?! How many blessings, how much encouragement, how much spiritual strength do we miss, how much do we weaken our faith and aggravate our doubts like Thomas did, because we absent ourselves from the assembly of the saints?

For a long time in my own walk with God I thought the way to get close to God and to grow in my faith was to spend more time alone with God in prayer. But then I was confronted with the plain command in Hebrew 10, that we are not to forsake the assembling of ourselves together, but instead we are to be engaged in helping each other on to heaven. On top of that, I found in Scripture that there are a lot of things that are important for our spiritual health that we cannot have in our lives by staying home and being alone. That is why C. S. Lewis says that the New Testament knows nothing of solitary religion.

But one of the main things that has helped me see the importance of regularly attending services with God’s people is Jesus’ promise: “Where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in the midst.” If I really want to be close to the Lord, I need to go where the Lord is, and he says that, in some special way, he is with His people.

In a special way, Jesus was with his people on that first Easter Sunday – and Thomas missed it because he simply didn’t show up. If we don’t want to trouble ourselves like Thomas did, and aggravate our doubts, we need to meet with the Lord’s people.

The second thing Thomas did not do that he should have done was listen to his fellow disciples about their experience with the Lord. They told Thomas, “We have seen the Lord!” But he refused to believe them.

Now just think about this. Who is telling him that the Lord is risen? These are sterling people that he has known for years. And they told him with one voice: the whole fellowship, everybody was telling him this. He should have been able to trust these people and to believe what they had told him, but, instead, he made his doubting worse.

Earlier I mentioned that passage in Hebrews, chapter 10, about not forsaking the assembly of the brethren. One of the things Hebrews 10 tells us we are to do when we meet together is to encourage each other’s faith. As it says in the Philip’s translation, “And let us not hold aloof from our church meetings, as some do. Let us do all we can to help one another’s faith, and this the more earnestly as we see the Final Day drawing ever nearer.” (p. 175)
The Lord intends for us to be helping each other to not doubt His truth and goodness to us in Christ. We are to help each other’s faith. We are to tell each other, like the disciples tried to tell Thomas, about the things the Lord is doing in our lives. But for this encouragement to work, we have to listen to what we say to each other. If we don’t listen and believe what we share with each other – for whatever reason: perhaps we like our pouting and the attention we are getting, for example, or we are too proud to admit something – well, it won’t do us any good.

There are many of us believers who could tell some profound stories from their own experience about the Lord’s ability to sustain us in times of grief and loss. Grief and loss will come to us all. Do you have doubts about your ability to get through these rough times in our lives? Then listen to the stories your fellow disciples can tell! The Lord is utterly dependable. To paraphrase the songwriter, Jesus really does give us more grace when the burdens grow greater; he really does send us more strength when the labours increase; to added affliction he really does add his mercy, and to multiplied trials, he really does give us his multiplied peace. Don’t be like Thomas and turn your ear away from the encouraging words of your fellow believers, because of your pride, or self-pity or whatever. Listen to their true testimonies and send your doubts packing.

Lastly, Thomas troubled himself by tempting the Lord, by presuming upon Him. “Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.” That is to say, “Jesus has got to do what I want him to do or I’m not going to believe.”

I once had a fellow down in the Caymans say the same kind of thing to me one day. He said, “I’ll believe in Jesus when he appears before me and shows himself to me,” as if the Lord had to give him some special attention. Our Lord, after his resurrection, appeared to lots of people a lot of times, and those appearances were recorded for all history, so that we would know that he had done so. He therefore doesn’t have to appear for every single person for them to believe in him. This idea of, “I’ll not believe unless God does something special for me that he’s not doing for anybody else” is nothing but stubborn pride and presumption. Jesus did not behave that way before God, did he? He prayed, “nevertheless, not my will, but thine be done.” But Thomas and this other fellow down on the island demanded that God must do what they wanted him to do, or else.

Friends, sometimes we trouble ourselves because we have an idea of what God ought to do about something and then, when he doesn’t do it, we doubt his faithfulness. We doubt that he hears our prayers and that he wants what is best for us. When we do this, we are aggravating our doubts, because we are presuming upon the Lord’s goodness and it’s all our own fault.

But how did the Lord respond to Thomas’s misbehaviour? Did he condemn him for not having been there on that first Easter Sunday? Did he condemn him for not listening to the other disciples? Did he condemn him for his presumption? He could have, because he should not have been acting like that. But, no. He turns Thomas’ attention away from his doubts to himself. That was all Thomas really needed; and the Lord knew it. Thomas had failed the Lord, but the Lord did not fail Thomas – he never did. And He never fails any of His children. Jesus is the Author and the Finisher of our Faith. He knows our weakness; he knows our faith will never be perfect in this life, and so He continues to show Himself to the eyes of our hearts and renew our trust in Him.

Here friends is the best answer to all our doubts. Look away from them, and turn your eyes upon Jesus. If we are looking at our doubts, our faith will be shrink. But if we look to him, our Faithful Saviour, our faith will be inspired. Jesus is the same He has ever been and ever will be – the absolutely dependable God. Keep your eyes on Him. Amen.

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Changing Your Mind About God


It should be no surprise to us that sometimes we need to adjust our thinking about God. ¬†Is he not in his being beyond our mental categories? ¬†When C. S. Lewis became England’s most reluctant convert – as he describes himself in Surprised by Joy – a change in his thinking about God was precisely what lead him to that point.

In St. John 9, we read of how Jesus – once again – had to adjust his disciples thinking about God. ¬†As Jesus was “passing by”, he sees the blind man and determines to heal him. However, the disciples pipe in with a question. They must have noticed that Jesus was giving this blind man attention. But the first thing in their minds about him was this question of the reason the man was born blind. Whose fault was it? For this man to have suffered such an awful fate, it must have been the judgment of God for someone’s sin, either his own or his parents.

Jesus answers their question by telling them that they totally had the wrong idea about this situation. He tells them that the man was blind for another reason which they were not considering. They had a false concept about God, and that false concept not only kept them from understanding the ways of God but also lead them to have uncharitable thoughts toward this man and his family.

This kind of thinking about God is still with us today. It is an overly simplistic way of handling a very complex problem: how can God be good and in control of everything while there is so much evil and cruelty in the world? People try to answer that serious question – which has perplexed the minds of men for millenia – by taking the position that actually God is acting justly in this world – it’s just that we don’t always know the back story for why bad things happen. If we did, we would realize that somehow those things happened to those people because they had done something wrong and deserved it. We “reap what we sow,” they would say.

Now we know that there are occasions when God brings temporal judgment upon wicked people. We actually can reap what we sow. However, we know that that is not what is always happening. And here, Jesus pulls back the curtain of God’s ways and say, “Actually, this man is not blind because he or his family had done something wrong and so God is punishing them. Rather, God has allowed this tragedy for the purpose of his glory, so that his works could be seen in this man’s life.” Now that is really a complex answer! But it doesn’t come from philosophical speculation; it comes straight from the Son of God himself, who came to reveal the Father to us. It is actually the case. And if it happened in one man’s life, it could very well be something God has done with the lives of others.

In other words, Jesus confronts the disciples’ overly simplistic answer for why evil happens to people with a fact about the ways of God that is beyond their ability to completely explain and understand in this life. You can’t. Instead, you can only take a place of humility about it, quit making such quick and easy judgments about human life, and trust the wisdom of God.

God’s ways are not our ways and his thoughts are not our thoughts and there is mystery about the reality that we live in every day. ¬†If we would walk with God, we must accept the fact – as Lewis tells us in Mere Christianity – that reality is complex. We must beware of getting on bandwagons – be they theological or political or whatever – that use simple explanations for what are really complex matters.

And we need to ask ourselves, do we have some false concepts about God? Are we in need of a paradigm shift like the disciples? Are we perhaps making judgments about what is going on in our world, or in the church, or in the lives of other people, or even ourselves, that miss the point because we have avoided the discomfort of really thinking things through and recognizing their complexity?

Or is there more going on? ¬†Have we misunderstood the truth, because it didn’t fit our agenda or because of some other ulterior motive we have, other than the glory of God – all in the name of the glory of God, of course!

No, this man was not born blind because of his or his parents’ sin. He was born blind for that very moment in history. He was born blind so that Jesus could, in that hour, heal him and, through him, show the works of God. If that seems unfair, we need to remember Paul’s answer to the objection in Romans: “Who are you, O man, to question what God may do with his own?” See Romans 9.

Besides, something is about to happen that is going to be a huge, huge blessing for this man, for which he will be thankful. ¬†I don’t think he is now in heaven worrying about the philosophical implications of how he was born.

If we are growing, we are going to have periodic paradigm shifts in our thinking about God and life.  Do you agree?

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Craving your patience

Dear Gentle Reader,

I apologize for not having updates recently.  I am in the throes of buying and moving into a new house and my time is just swept away.  I will finish my comments on The Discarded Image in the near future.

With warm regards!

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Discarded Image, Ch. 4

Philosophia counsel Boethius

In the chapter, “Selected Materials, The Seminal Period,” Lewis introduces us to those authors whose works did indeed sew the seeds of what grew into the Medieval Model of the universe – that imaginative framework which had an “emotional effect” (p. 112) on the Medieval mind.

He starts out by commenting on the overlap between the classical Pagan mind and the Christian mind to which he refers in his famous “De Descriptione Temporum” speech, in which he says that the pagans had more in common with the Christian mind than do the moderns. ¬†He shows how the older classical mind had an enduring impact upon the nascent early Christian mind, which eventually developed into the Medieval mind.

He then reviews important authors who moved comfortably between the classical and Christian authors as they themselves wrote about the universe. ¬†These are Chalcidius, Macrobius, Pseudo-Dionysius, and Boethius. ¬†Of Boethius, he said, “To acquire a taste for it [his De Consolatione Philosophiae] is almost to become naturalised in the Middle Ages. (p. 75).

Because Boethius is so important, the rest of the chapter is an 11-page-worth Book-by-Book introduction and summary of the Consolatione. ¬†I’d buy the book just for this summary.

As you read his review of these authors, he refers to how later authors referred to these works, especially Dante and Milton. ¬†Part of the joy of reading this chapter are the “aha” moments when he shines light on these later authors. ¬†It’s also refreshing to have Lewis sweep away our misconceptions of what the early authors believed about the universe, and to learn how much genius was often at play.

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