A century of evil enchantment


Today, I received the following in an e-mail:

I was wondering if you could answer a question for me please? Early in “Weight of Glory” Lewis says “And you and I have need of the strongest spell that can be found to wake us from the evil enchantment of worldliness which has been laid upon us for nearly a hundred years”. I assume the hundred years would be about 1845 to 1945. Can you tell me what he is referring to by “nearly a hundred years”?

BTW, the quote he refers to comes from the fifth paragraph.

Here’s my answer:
In answer to your question, lets pick up the flow of Lewis’ thought in this part of the sermon. He is setting forth an aspect of what we call his “argument from desire.” It is an idea about the universe that there is a correspondence between the things we seem to desire or need and the existence – somewhere – of an ultimate satisfaction for that desire or need. Indeed, the existence of this ultimate, satisfying reality is the cause, as it were, for the existence of the desires and needs. In the case of our desire and need for God, Lewis likes to talk about what he elsewhere calls “joy.” Here, he uses the terms “suggestion,” a “reminder,” an “inner voice,” and “a longing for the transtemporal.”

He says in the sermon that, by bringing these experiences up, he is trying to weave a spell to counter another spell. He is setting forth a vision of the universe to counter another vision of the universe. He is using imaginative language, and reference to the experience of his hearers, to foster a vision of this reality to counter the one we have acquired from our modern, western environment.

Lets think about how he describes this other spell. He says it is an evil enchantment of worldliness. Now remember that he is preaching a sermon in a church to professing Christians. Worldliness is one of the 3 primary evil enemies of the church, the others being the “flesh” and the devil. Worldliness is conforming our way of thinking and our very thoughts to the pattern and ideals of the world around us, which are based upon ungodliness and thus evil. In effect, Lewis is here seeking to root out the sin of worldliness in his congregation. He wants them to wake up to an awareness of something they have “bought into” which is robbing them of a Christian interaction with our universe and the Reality behind it.

And how did this worldliness creep into their lives over the last century? Through the schools they have attended. You note that in the next sentence he begins to address education. He spends the rest of the paragraph exposing the agenda of modern philosophies which have tried to shut us off from our true selves and the truth of the universe we live in. He wants us aware of this false understanding of the world we have imbibed through our schools so that we will begin to resist it and be open to a truer vision.

Much of this is part of what Lewis writes about in The Abolition of Man. In The Abolition of Man, Lewis speaks of how it was that, before modern times, educators believed in an ideal correspondence between the material universe and a fitting or appropriate emotional reaction to it. In other words, our feelings corresponded to the reality of what is around us. We could thus talk about whether one emotional reaction to an object or event (say a painting or a coronation) were more appropriate than another. A break from this idea occurred when people began to deny any such ordering of our feelings, that there was a human soul that could have such a correspondence with Creation. Instead, humans and everything else in the universe were thought to be simply a random interaction of matter. One could point to the writings of Karl Marx as an important mile-stone for the popularization of materialism about 100 years before Lewis writes his sermon.

In light of the above considerations, I would say, in answer to your question, that his reference to nearly a hundred years is to the past century of education in the schools of England dominated by modern, materialistic philosophy. Materialism kills the ability to recognize what is happening to us when we experience the longing of that “suggestion” or “reminder.” It makes us think that it is only some psychological trick, based on our biological and genetic needs, instead of a spiritual reality, of something that is an indicator of the truth about what humans are and the universe they live in.

Do let me know if you have any other questions and thanks so much for writing!

Image: https://www.flickr.com/photos/funky64/2960218105/sizes/l/

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Further Up & In – Ptolemy and Lewis’ Imagination


I wrote this in Nov. of 2006; so, ten years later, thought I’d post it again. 🙂

My students have just gotten through Dante’s Inferno and Paradiso (we did not purposefully leave out the Purgatorio, but I should not take space here on just what happened). While preparing for class, I read Lewis’ Studies in Renaissance and Medieval Literature. I was familiar with the Ptolemaic view of the universe, but Lewis “filled in the corners” for me in several places.

He describes the medieval person as looking up and into the universe above, as over against the modern way of looking, which is out and away into the vast reaches of matter. The medieval looked up, because Earth was at the bottom of the planetary hierarchy. He looked “into” the universe because the root of Earthly being is found ultimately in the Empyrean, even in God Himself, who dwells above us, beyond the outermost sphere of this universe.

Beside the “up” and “in” way of looking, the medieval person also considered the spiritual world of the Empyrean to be like our world, only inside out. The farther away from Earth you get, the richer and broader is our experience of Reality.

I was reflecting on this view of the universe when the words “up” and “in” hit me like a brick. Combined with the “inside out” description of the Empyrean, I immediately recognised the source of the Narnian expression, “further up and further in,” and just what that going further up and in was like as we read of it in The Last Battle.

Now let me throw this in: I have decided that I like the Ptolemaic view of the universe quite a bit. To the modern mind, nothing is worth considering unless it is based on observation and rational analysis in the materialistic, “scientific” mode of our day. But it all depends on the question you are wanting to ask. The modern man only wants to ask, “What is there materially?” The Christian should go beyond that question and ask, “What is there in the whole of its nature?” We are, of course, interested in the truth of what is materially present in any object, because God has made it so. But the Christian recognises that nothing detectable by our senses should be divorced from whatever may be its connection to the Mind behind its existence.

The universe is Created. There is more than the material about everything because the context of all includes more than the material; it includes the Personal, in varying ways and degrees. The Ptolemaic view includes the personal elements that Christians believe to be present. The Copernican view is more true regarding the material existence of the universe, but the Ptolemaic is more true regarding its immaterial existence. As Lewis points out, all theories of the nature of the universe are models. The Copernican view has always been another model, and it has regularly been updated.

I find it most interesting that the Intelligent Design model is, in a sense, a move back toward the truth in the Ptolemaic model. I’m all for it. Let Love for God spring into the dance of the spheres again!

Image credit: http://www.luminarium.org/encyclopedia/medievalcosmology.htm

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Lewis “festoons” the Lord’s Prayer

The Plain of Gennesaret from the Mount of Beatitudes, Galilee. Image credit: http://www.chrisinukraine.com/news/

In Letters to Malcolm, numbers 3 and 4, Lewis tells us how he would add his own personal thought-associations to the phrases in the Lord’s Prayer.  These were things he wanted to remember as he used the prayer privately.  I’ve gathered them together below, wording his thoughts in a summary fashion that helps the prayer move along.

Our Father who art in heaven,
To whom I pray with angels and archangels and all the company of heaven,
Hallowed be thy name.
Thy kingdom come,
May it be realized,
That kingdom that is in the unfallen parts of this beautiful Creation – beyond the suffering of humans and animals;
    That kingdom that dwells in the hearts of all the best lives of your saints in this world;
    That kingdom where rejoice the blessed dead.
Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven
That divine plan and wisdom we patiently accept, though it may be difficult for us;
    May I have the grace to vigorously bring it to pass myself, bearing the mind of Christ as I do so, in both the little and big things of life;
    And may I have the grace to live in the blessings of the present.
Give us this day our daily bread.
All those things requisite and necessary as well for the body as the soul.
And forgive us our trespasses,
As we forgive those who trespass against us.*
And lead us not into temptation,

But deliver us from evil.
    Spare me, and do not answer my prayers if the answers would not be good for me.
For thine is the kingdom,
The Divine right to rule,
and the power,
For you alone are the 0mnipotent God,
and the glory,
That beauty for which we long
Forever and ever.  Amen.

*Lewis says he doesn’t need to festoon this one; it’s all too clear as it is!

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